Recent Changes

Tuesday, December 19

  1. msg WinkWhite message posted WinkWhite nice http://www.winkwhiteclub.com/
    9:18 am

Friday, March 24

  1. msg dISABILITIES VS DISABILITY message posted dISABILITIES VS DISABILITY This text uses "disabilities" somewhat interchangeably, even incorrectly in what the &quo…
    dISABILITIES VS DISABILITY
    This text uses "disabilities" somewhat interchangeably, even incorrectly in what the "D"stands for in "SDS." Beyond that error, "disabilities" is NOT accepted common use for the discipline or area study of DISABILITY in society. Using the plural is a THEORETICAL statement in Disability Studies, one our group has NOT adopted or, to my knowledge, discussed. I believe it was done without any intention of making a theoretical statement. Its use creates problems as diverse as making us look naive, to implying a theoretical position antithetical, I believe, to most of us.

    Can we do some editing?
    11:29 am

Monday, November 9

  1. msg Qualitative analysis with Quirkos message posted Qualitative analysis with Quirkos We have developed a new qualitative analysis software tool called Quirkos http://www.quirkos.com …
    Qualitative analysis with Quirkos
    We have developed a new qualitative analysis software tool called Quirkos http://www.quirkos.com which aims to make qualitative analysis visual and intuitive.
    8:41 am

Friday, October 23

  1. msg typo message posted typo making "the art of governing" and embodied experience should be: making "the art o…
    typo
    making "the art of governing" and embodied experience
    should be: making "the art of governing" an embodied experience
    11:54 pm

Sunday, May 17

  1. page Games edited ... ­­­Camerer, C., and Fehr, E. 2004. Measuring social norms and preferences using experimental …
    ...
    ­­­Camerer, C., and Fehr, E.
    2004. Measuring social norms and preferences using experimental games: A guide for social scientists. In Foundations of human sociality: economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, H. Gintis, E. Fehr, and C. Camerer, eds. Pp. 413-35. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    ­­­Camerer,Camerer, C., and
    2004. Measuring social norms and preferences using experimental games: A guide for social scientists. In Foundations of human sociality: economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, H. Gintis, E. Fehr, and C. Camerer, eds. Pp. 413-35. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gil-White, F. J.
    ...
    Lesorogol, C. K.
    2007. Bringing norms in. The role of context in experimental dictator games. Current Anthropology 48:920-26.
    ...
    Fehr, E.
    2004. Measuring social norms and preferences using experimental games: A guide for social scientists. In Foundations of human sociality: economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, H. Gintis, E. Fehr, and C. Camerer, eds. Pp. 413-35. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Jackson, C.
    2011. Research with experimental games: questioning practice and interpretation. Progress in Development Studies 11(3): 229-241.
    ­­­Camerer,Camerer, C., and
    2004. Measuring social norms and preferences using experimental games: A guide for social scientists. In Foundations of human sociality: economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, H. Gintis, E. Fehr, and C. Camerer, eds. Pp. 413-35. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    ­­­Camerer, C., and Fehr, E.
    ...
    Bernard, Russell
    2011 Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Lanham, Maryland: Altamira Press.
    ­­­Camerer,Camerer, C., and
    2004. Measuring social norms and preferences using experimental games: A guide for social scientists. In Foundations of human sociality: economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, H. Gintis, E. Fehr, and C. Camerer, eds. Pp. 413-35. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    ­­­Camerer, C., and Fehr, E.
    2004. Measuring social norms and preferences using experimental games: A guide for social scientists. In Foundations of human sociality: economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, H. Gintis, E. Fehr, and C. Camerer, eds. Pp. 413-35. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    ­­­Camerer,Camerer, C., and
    2004. Measuring social norms and preferences using experimental games: A guide for social scientists. In Foundations of human sociality: economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, H. Gintis, E. Fehr, and C. Camerer, eds. Pp. 413-35. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gerkey, Drew.
    (view changes)
    9:06 am
  2. page Explanatory Model edited ... Explanatory Model Definition ... illness and provides a framework whereby social science …
    ...
    Explanatory Model
    Definition
    ...
    illness and provides a framework whereby social science researchers and healthcare providers engage with participants/patients in comprehensively understanding their experienceslived illness experience. This model was proposed by Arthur Kleinman to organize illness and health within socio-cultural contexts. Such a model investigates explanations of it.sickness and social realities that are culturally shaped and influence how individuals experience disease. Explanatory models
    ...
    textual data. The explanatory model guides perceptions of researchers and clinicians by emphasizing the importance of examining health, health seeking behaviors, and medicinal decision making within a cultural context .
    Relevant Characteristics
    ...
    open-ended questions. Kleinman’s explanatory model engages researchers and clinicians in seeking the how, why, what, when, where, and what next of illness, disease, and health experience. The most relevant setting for this model is within applied medical ethnographic fieldwork and/or clinical environments. The first
    This method is a tool that could be used alone in qualitative research, or with other techniques such as life histories, key-informant interviews, participant-observations, focus groups or pile sorting, among others. In mental health studies, explanatory models can be used together with tools such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Researchers have refined Kleinman’s model into a mixture of open-ended and direct questions that lets them quantify results. These include the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC), Short Explanatory Interview Model (SEMI) and the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ). The pattern of questioning are similar in these later models, and the differences lie in how they are structured. SEMI and EMIC have built-in classification features that permit qualitative data to be synced with quantitative data, while IPQ questionnaires contain a fixed range of causes for participants to select.
    {EM_copy.jpg} Bhui and Bhugra, 2002
    ...
    Online Resources
    Anthropology Archive has an alternate description of explanatory models and how they relate to illness beliefs. It also has an anecdotal story on how a consultant/translator helped elicit an explanatory model from patients in Mexico.
    http://thehealthcareblog.com/blog/2013/06/11/the-patient-explanatory-model/
    http://www.romecriteria.org/global_perspective/program/slides/SperberSchmulson/Brodwin_Explanatory_models.pdf
    http://www.eperc.mcw.edu/EPERC/FastFactsIndex/ff_026.htm

    Further Reading
    Blumhagen, D. (1980). Hyper-tension: A folk illness with a medical name. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry 4:197-227
    Kleinman, A. (1976). Culture, illness and care: Clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Annals of Internal Medicine 88:251-258.
    Weiss,Kleinman, Arthur & Peter Benson 2006 Anthropology in the Clinic: The Problem of Cultural Competency and How to Fix It. PLoS Medicine 3(10):1673-1676.
    Kleinman, Arthur, Leon Eisenberg, and Byron Good 1978 Culture, Illness, and Care. Annals of Internal Medicine 88:251-258.
    Weiss,
    M.G., Doongaji,
    ...
    Psychiatry 160:819-930.
    References
    Kleinman, Arthur. (1978). Concepts and a Model for the Comparison of Medical Systems as Cultural Systems. Social Science & Medicine 12:85-93.
    Kleinman, A. (1976). Culture, illness and care: Clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Annals of Internal Medicine 88:251-258.
    Weiss, M.G., Doongaji, D.R., Siddhartha, S., Wypic, D., Pathare, S., Bhatawdekar, M., Bhave, A., Sheth, A., and Fernandes, R. (1992). The Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC): Contribution to Cross-cultural research methods from a study of leprosy and mental health. British Journal of Psychiatry 160:819-930.
    (view changes)
    9:03 am
  3. page Methods edited ... Self-administered Questionnaire Semantic Cueing Semi-Structured Interviews Social Network…
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    Self-administered Questionnaire
    Semantic Cueing
    Semi-Structured Interviews
    Social Network Analysis
    Triad Test
    (view changes)
    8:43 am
  4. page Semi-Structured Interviews edited ... Semi-Structured Interviews Definition ... a flexible framework. framework . Relevant C…
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    Semi-Structured Interviews
    Definition
    ...
    a flexible framework.framework .
    Relevant Characteristics
    ...
    the interviewee says.says .
    The interviewer
    ...
    possible biasing issues.issues .
    “Method Made Easy”
    Semi--‐structured interviews require that the interviewers and interviewees meet in person. Scheduling a time and quiet place to conduct the interview are important preliminary aspects to be considered. The interview guide is a template outlining the specific topic areas to be covered. Be specific about what qualitative information is needed; the motivations, perceptions or behavior under study. The interviewer will use this guide during the process to insure the required information is gathered.
    ...
    DiCicco-Bloom, Barbara with Benjamin F. Crabtree.
    2006. The qualitative research interview. Medical Education 40:314–321.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02418.x
    Russell, Bernard.
    2011. Research methods in anthropology: qualitative and quantitative approaches. 5th edition. 665 pp. Lanham, MD : AltaMira.

    (view changes)
    8:42 am
  5. page Semi-Structured Interviews edited Semi-Structured Interviews Definition A series of questions administered by a researcher seeki…

    Semi-Structured Interviews
    Definition
    A series of questions administered by a researcher seeking to understand meanings in an interviewee’s life. It allows all participants the opportunity to be asked the same questions within a flexible framework.
    Relevant Characteristics
    The semi--‐structured interview is used when qualitative information about motivation, behavior and perceptions is required. The process is flexible, allowing new questions to be brought to interview as a result of what the interviewee says.
    The interviewer uses an interview guide describing a framework of themes to be covered, however, the specific questions are based on the respondent’s answers. This requires skill on the researcher’s part not only to establish rapport, but control the interview by asking follow--‐upon questions eliciting the desired information. While a semi--‐structured interview allows for in-depth examination of perceptions, motivations and behaviors, and is dependent on the interviewer skills, care must be taken to avoid introducing bias. Bias comes in many forms; power dynamics within the interviewer, unconscious cues that lead the respondent to desired answers, insufficiently large or random interviewee sample. Care must be taken in the research design and much depends on the skill of the interviewer to address possible biasing issues.
    “Method Made Easy”
    Semi--‐structured interviews require that the interviewers and interviewees meet in person. Scheduling a time and quiet place to conduct the interview are important preliminary aspects to be considered. The interview guide is a template outlining the specific topic areas to be covered. Be specific about what qualitative information is needed; the motivations, perceptions or behavior under study. The interviewer will use this guide during the process to insure the required information is gathered.
    Advantages
    The strength of the semi--‐structured interview comes from combining both structure and flexibility. Using an interview guide ensures topical areas are covered, but the less--‐structured nature allows the interviewer to respond to non--‐verbal clues, unclear or related topics the respondent feels strongly about. This format explores in depth the perceptions, motivations and behaviors of respondents, allowing for a thicker understanding of a theme. When qualitative, descriptive information is sufficient for decision‐making. When there is a need to understand motivation, behavior, and perspectives. When preliminary information is needed to design a comprehensive quantitative study.
    Limitations
    Not appropriate if quantitative data are needed. May be biased if informants are not carefully selected. Is susceptible to interviewer biases. Depends on interviewer’s skills. May be difficult to prove the reliability or validity of findings. This is due to several factors. It is difficult to repeatedly administer the same interview to different respondents, the respondent may answer the same question differently based on factors outside the control of the interviewer, i.e. how they feel or power dynamics with the interviewer. The interviewer may give unconscious signals guiding the respondent towards expected answers, or the respondent may lie or have imperfect recall, both of which cannot be verified by the interviewer.
    Analysis
    The interview can be transcribed and the coded by the researcher. Coding assigns groups of text to groups of themes, which can then be analyzed by commercially available software programs such as ATLAS.ti. Grouping themes and then analyzing those from multiple interviews provides a qualitative and thicker understanding of motivations, and behaviors, and provides quantifiable data as well.
    Online Resources
    Wageningen UR (University & Research centre). Participatory Planning Monitoring and Evaluation (PPME) resource portal --‐Semi-structured interviews: http://portals.wi.wur.nl/ppme/?page=1124
    Sociology.org has resources addressing semi-structured interviews strengths, limitations, biasing and processes at: http://www.sociology.org.uk/methfi.pdf
    Further Reading
    Kvale, Steinar.
    1996. Interviews: An introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. Sage Publications.
    References
    Dearnley, C.
    2005. A reflection on the use of semi-structured interviews. Nurse researcher. 13(1):19-28.
    DiCicco-Bloom, Barbara with Benjamin F. Crabtree.
    2006. The qualitative research interview. Medical Education 40:314–321.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02418.x

    (view changes)
    8:41 am
  6. page Games edited ... Experimental games are social interactions, structured by rules for play that allow researcher…
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    Experimental games are social interactions, structured by rules for play that allow researchers to examine behavior and by extension reveal social norms that have implications for economic theory.
    Relevant Characteristics
    ...
    college campuses) but but anthropologists and
    ...
    in the field.
    Research
    field .
    Research
    participants play
    ...
    party punishment game.game .
    There is no minimum sample size to use this method in the field but a larger sample size will usually allow researchers to address more questions and data patterns.
    ...
    of in-group favoritism.favoritism . They have
    ...
    comparison of cooperation.cooperation . Researchers attempt
    ...
    in experimental games.games . Such studies look look at the
    “Method Made Easy”
    Select a type of game appropriate to your research topic or design your own game. This step may include adapting a given game to a particular context using ethnographic information.
    ...
    Funds granted by funding agencies have higher purchasing power in many other countries, which helps in analysis of low stakes and high stakes behavior.
    Games provide an alternative to the Likert scale to study trust and other social norms.
    ...
    likely to have.have .
    Limitations
    Outside of US lab settings, researchers have documented difficulties in explaining the games, which often seem strange and confound research participants.
    ...
    In their original form, such games were meant to be administered by someone not known to the research subjects; anthropologists usually are well known to their research subjects.
    Research subjects typically approach these games as they do informal social situations; therefore the games’ results may not reveal norms that come into play in other more formal or organized settings.
    ...
    or across cultures.cultures .
    Analysis
    Detailed fieldnotes can be analyzed and coded as text with the aid of software.
    ...
    Method in Context
    Some special issues arise from the use of real money in experimental games. Researchers should aim to make a distinction between compensation for participation and game winnings, as well as be aware of the different values that can be ascribed to money across and within different communities.
    ...
    predict strategic behavior.behavior . Work in
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    of rational self-interest.self-interest . However, cross-cultural
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    reciprocity” alongside selfishness.selfishness . Controlled experiments
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    of social norms.norms .
    Experimental games
    ...
    further contextualized study.study . Ethnographic data
    ...
    of economic games.games .
    Relevant quotations on anthropology and economic games:
    ...
    multidisciplinary research."
    “Whether

    “Whether
    frames are
    ...
    ethnographic methodologies.”
    “A brief and completely open individual discussion with players after the introduction and explanation, and before the actual play, might show many things about what players are thinking when they play. Postgame interviews are very revealing about the ideas at play in the gaming, but they need to be accompanied by more analysis of broader social and cultural contexts for action and an epistemological stance which recognizes varying degrees of reflexivity at work, is alert to ethnocentric assumptions about behaviour and mindful that western subjects are as culturally and historically embedded as subjects in ‘simple’ societies.”
    Online Resources
    (view changes)
    8:26 am

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